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From Sherman Library's Collections

Articles highlighting Sherman Library's collections and the history of Sherman Library & Gardens.

The 1928 Pacific Coast Surf Board Championship

Paul Wormser - Tuesday, August 07, 2018

Recently, both Huntington Beach and Santa Cruz have claimed the moniker, Surf City, USA.  While today nobody considers Corona del Mar the center of surf culture in California, in 1928 it might well have claimed the title Surf City, USA.  In that year, Corona del Mar had the only surf club on the Pacific Coast (with twelve members) and was the site of the first Pacific Coast Surf Board Championship. One of the most popular photographs in Sherman Library's collection shows contestants in this race posing next to their redwood longboards.

In 1928, the entrance to Newport Harbor was a perilous place for boaters.  Boats entering or leaving faced the real possibility of running aground or being swamped in the high surf.  Only three years earlier five men died when the charter fishing boat Thelma was swamped in the harbor channel. Attempts to quiet the water by building jetties on both the east and west side of the harbor entrance had failed.  However, the same waves that imperiled boats made for excellent surfing. Duke Kahanamoku, the 1912 and 1920 Olympic gold medalist and the man credited with popularizing surfing, considered the waves breaking into the entrance to Newport Harbor to be the best on the California coast. 


  Contestants in the Pacific Coast Surf Board Championship, August 7, 1928. 
Sherman Library Photograph Collection.

At noon on Sunday August 7, 1928, the Corona del Mar Surf Board Association sponsored the first Pacific Coast Surf Board Championship and Sparr Bathhouse manager, T. W. Sheffield, organized the event.  The competitions included a paddling contest from Corona del Mar beach to the west jetty and back, a canoe tilting completion, a demonstration of the use of surfboards for life saving, and finally a "rough water" surfboard race from the bell buoy off the harbor entrance to the channel nearest the east jetty.

The event organizers undoubtedly timed it to take advantage of the crowds gathering to watch the Star Class International Championship sailing race being held off the Newport Beach coast.  Several hundred people lined the beach to watch the surfing contest.  Fifteen contestants entered, coming from Corona del Mar, Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Redondo and Santa Ana.

Had Duke Kahanamoku been at the race, he would have been the favorite to win.  Kahanamoku, however, could not attend, because he was filming a movie title The Rescue. The contestants included Tom Blake, who later would write the first book on surfing and revolutionize board designs, and Gerard Vultee, a pioneer in the airspace industry.  Blake took home silver trophies for first place in both the paddleboard and surfing competitions.

The Goldenrod Footbridge

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, February 07, 2018

Sometimes as the small bungalows that once dominated the area around Sherman Library are replaced by large residences it seems nothing of "old" Corona del Mar survives.  Yet amid the new homes are some elements of the past.  One of these is the iconic Goldenrod footbridge, which is nearly 90 years old. The bridge over Bayside Drive, connects two segments of Goldenrod Avenue.  It is not only quaint, but it represents a different time, when Newport Beach city leaders sought new ways to attract people to Corona del Mar.

Through the late 1920s, the largest concentration of homes in Corona del Mar was along the bluffs overlooking the bay. One reason for this was obvious – the view.  The other reason was that the only road to Corona del Mar was Bayside Drive.  Few people bought lots and fewer built houses on the northeast side of Bayside Drive.  Reaching this area meant taking a circuitous route.  Getting to the beach meant scrambling down and back up "Pacific Gulch" to cross Bayside Drive.

In 1926, the segment of Coast Highway passing through Newport Beach opened, making inland Corona del Mar easily accessible for the first time.  Yet, the expected boom in development did not take place immediately.  In 1927, the City Council began debating the possibility of a footbridge across Pacific gultch, so that people could reach the beach in a few minutes.  Leaders surmised that the improved beach access would also raise property values. Despite complaints from owners living in the assessment district who would have to pay for the bridge, the Council approved the project.

Contractors constructed the 243-foot steel reinforced concrete bridge between mid–May and early-August of 1928. John A. Siegal, Assistant City Engineer, was assigned to oversee the project. The photographs for this article are from a scrapbook he maintained to document the project.  Siegal's photographs are among the many collections relating to the history of Newport Beach, which are available for research at Sherman Library.

While the completion of the bridge did not lead to a land rush in Corona del Mar, it has become an enduring part of the community.  Eventually, artists Rex Brandt and Joan Irving Brandt built their home and studio, Blue Sky, on Goldenrod next to the bridge.  For many years they taught classes at Blue Sky and hosted other artists.  The bridge was a popular subject of paintings.  Sherman Library has two painting on public display depicting the Goldenrod Footbridge, one by Joan Irving Brandt and the other by Dan Lutz.

When Nobody Bought $100 Lots in Corona del Mar

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, November 08, 2017
The oldest structure at Sherman Library & Gardens is a single-room adobe house built by Lawrence and Pauline Lushbaugh in the late 1930s.  The Lushbaugh’s story is interesting:  the young

Lawrence and Pauline Lushbaugh in front of their house, which is now part of Sherman Library & Gardens.

couple bought a plot of land, and taught themselves how to make fired-adobe brinks to build their own home. Yet if a single element of the story fascinates people, it is this:  the Lushbaughs bought the land for their house from the City of Newport Beach for $600.00, an amount that would not cover the cost of a square foot of a typical house today.

Selling land in Corona del Mar in the years before the World War II was challenging at best. Lots that now sell for millions of dollars were priced at a few hundred dollars, remaining unsold for years.  An aerial photograph in Sherman Library’s collections is graphic evidence.  Taken in 1940, the photograph shows a scattering of homes and business in the flower streets.  Whole blocks were nearly vacant. In fact, in 1940 the City of Newport Beach owned a considerable number of Corona del Mar “tax lots,” which it acquired when the owners failed to pay property taxes.

 Aerial photograph of Corona del Mar, 1940. 

The man who first envisioned Corona del Mar – and named it – was George E. Hart, a Los Angeles real estate salesman.  In 1904, Hart bought 706 acres of land for $125.00/acre from The Irvine Company.  One 1904 advertisement announced people could buy lots starting at $100. At the time he made the deal, Hart expected that the Pacific Electric Railway, the so-called Red Cars, would extend as far as Corona del Mar.    However, when the railway was extended south in 1906, the terminus was the Balboa Peninsula, not Corona del Mar.  Corona del Mar had a geography problem – the only way to the new subdivision was by boat from Balboa or by a road owned by The Irvine Company.  When it was clear that the Pacific Electric would not reach Corona del Mar, Hart tried to cut his losses by deeding back 359 acres to The Irvine Company.  In 1907, he built the Hotel Del Mar at the corner of present-day Carnation and Seaview, to encourage people to visit – and he hoped – buy land. By 1915, Hart was ready to wind up his Corona del Mar adventure.  

Hart sold his remaining land, including the Hotel Del Mar to the F. D. Cornell Co. The F. D. Cornell Co. tried to rename the tract Balboa Palisades, to take advantage of better-know Balboa. The Hotel Del Mar was renamed the Palisades Tavern. But it did not work.  By 1920, Corona del Mar had fewer than 50 homes. Moreover, those few residents resisted the new Balboa Palisades name, which was later abandoned.  
 The Hotel Del Mar, later known as the Palisades Tavern and then the Balboa Palisades Club. Courtesy Sherman Library

The F. D. Cornell Co. sold the Palisades Tavern in 1925 to a group of investors who formed the Balboa Palisades Club.  The investors promoted the club in the characteristically overblown language of real estate ads at the time.  “Situated atop the Balboa Palisades will be the new Club house as planned, commanding an unsurpassed view . . . a tumbling, sapphire sea breaking upon a beach dotted with multicolored tents and parasols, and people, young and old, pleasure bent in the life-giving, golden sunshine . . . here at this rainbow’s end is the Balboa Palisades Club. Here discriminating families may enjoy its many advantages in safety and seclusion.” 

The investors probably expected a real estate boom once Coast Highway opened in 1926. But, the boom did not materialize, and within a few years the Great Depression took hold.  It would not be until after World War II that Corona del Mar land would sell at a premium.

How Jamboree Road Got its Name

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Every day countless people drive on Jamboree Road in Newport Beach without knowing the origin of the street’s name. Today it is hard to image that 45,000 Boy Scouts once camped on the spot now occupied by Fashion Island.  But, in 1953, when Irvine Ranch hosted the Third National Jamboree, that was the case.


Pamphlet advertising the Jamboree.  
Sherman Library Collections.
  Jamboree commemorative patch.  
Sherman Library Collections.

The Jamboree was an extraordinary local event.  For a single week in July 1953, a full-scale city, larger than the permanent population of Newport Beach materialized.  Scouts attending the Jamboree pitched more than 25,000 tents on the site bordered by present-day MacArthur Blvd., Coast Highway, Back Bay Drive and University Drive.  Irvine Road, which ran through the site, was later renamed Jamboree.

Well in advance of the scouts’ arrival, planners surveyed the site and installed the infrastructure. Workers built more than 8 miles of roads, installed over 36 miles of telephone and electrical lines and constructed a water works capable of pumping 18 million gallons of water per day.  The encampment also had its own telephone exchange, short wave radio station, hospital. employing 164 doctors, fire department consisting of four companies, and police department with a staff of 150 officers. By the time the Scouts arrived, the site also included a theater, store, zoo, bus line and a parking lot capable of holding 16,000 cars. 


Scouts attending a performance at the theater.

Sherman Library Collection. 

The boys could select from many traditional camping activities like archery and pottery making.  For many, no doubt, a highlight was taking a bus to the beach.  An enormous theater offered formal entertainment, including visits from Hollywood stars, such as Danny Kaye and Debbie Reynolds.  Even Vice President Richard Nixon made an appearance, flipping pancakes for a few troops.

For people wanting to know more about the Jamboree, Sherman Library has a collection of publications, photographs and newspaper clippings and other items – some of which you see here – available for people to use. 

Founding Sherman Library & Gardens

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Sherman Library & Gardens’ origins can be traced to one day in April 1914. On that day, Moses Hazeltine Sherman approached Arnold Haskell,  a young man working as a clerk at the reception desk of the Mission Inn in Riverside, with a job offer.  Years later Haskell recalled, “The General [Sherman] came in and he said, ‘Arnold, do you want to work for me?’ I said, ‘Yes, I do.’ He said, ‘Well, the train leaves for Los Angeles at four o'clock this afternoon.’ Years later, Arnold Haskell would honor the man who hired him by naming Sherman Library & Gardens after him.


A Young Arnold Haskell at work, ca. 1920
Sherman Library 

In 1914 when Sherman hired Haskell, Sherman was a highly successful and well-known businessman.  More than forty years before, as a young man, Sherman had moved to the Arizona Territory to teach school.  In the coming years, he would rise in prominence, becoming the first Superintendent of Public Instruction.  Later, he was appointed, and then re-elected, Adjutant General of Arizona, in charge of the territorial militia – thus earning the honorary title “General.” He also manifested a talent for finance and investment – in mines and real estate initially.  He eventually owned the Phoenix Street Railway, had a controlling interest in the Phoenix Water Company and owned considerable land in Phoenix, even donating the land on which sits the State Capital building.  By 1890 he was looking to expand his investments.  He chose Los Angeles.

In Los Angeles, Sherman began acquiring street railroads to created the first network of electric street cars, the Los Angeles Consolidated Electric Railway. He then built the first interurban in Southern California, the Los Angeles and Pasadena Railway.  While building his railroads and investing in land, Sherman was also making friends.  Most prominent among these were Harrison Grey Otis, founder of the Los Angeles Times; Harry Chandler, Otis’s son-in-law and publisher of the Times; Otto F. Brant, a founder of Title Insurance and Trust Company; and Hobart Whitley, sometimes known as the “Father of Hollywood.”  In 1909, these men formed the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, which acquired 47,500 acres of farmland in the San Fernando Valley and subdivided it following the arrival of water through the Los Angeles Aqueduct, creating Canoga Park, Van Nuys and Encino in the process. In 1912, members of this same group purchased the Tejon Ranch, which encompassed more than 275,000 acres at the top of Tejon Pass.

Thus, when Arnold Haskell signed on with Sherman, he was agreeing to work for one of the most prominent and successful businessmen in Los Angeles.  When Sherman hired Haskell, there was no negotiation over salary or responsibilities.  Haskell did not know what his duties would be or how much he would be paid.  He could not have known that he would stay in the Sherman’s employ for the next eighteen years, becoming his almost constant companion, closest confidant and eventual successor to his business interests.

Haskell became Sherman’s personal secretary, working with him on every aspect of his businesses.  In the years that Haskell worked for Sherman, he continued to launch new enterprises.  For example, Sherman became one of the founders of the Los Angeles Steamship Company, a passenger line with routes to San Francisco and Honolulu. He also created a partnership that developed Hollywoodland, and subdivided 1,000 acres of his San Fernando Valley holdings to create Sherman Oaks.

Sherman passed away in 1932. The last couple of years of his life, in ill health, he retreated to a home on Bay Island, in Newport Harbor.  Sherman’s illness and the effects of the Great Depression left his estate deeply in debt, despite valuable land holdings.  In the first few years following Sherman’s death, Arnold Haskell worked with extraordinary tenacity and intelligence as trustee of the estate and president of the M. H. Sherman Company to turn around the investments. Haskell then focused on expanding his real estate portfolio, acquiring prime land in Los Angles, Newport Beach and Dana Point.  By 1951, he felt he was successful enough to launch a new career as a philanthropist.  With Sherman’s two daughters – Lucy and Hazeltine –  Haskell created the Sherman Foundation. 

In its first 15 years the Foundation functioned as a grant-making institution, but that would eventually change.  In 1955, Haskell moved his business offices from Los Angeles to Corona del Mar after buying a parcel of land at the corner of Coast Highway and Dahlia from Norman’s Nursery.  The lot had a small adobe house dating from the late 1930s which Haskell used as an office.  In 1956 he added additional office space.  Both the adobe and office addition are now occupied by Sherman Library.

Arnold Haskell then started buying more property on the same block. He had to do this quietly to  keep the sellers from raising prices.  It took him more than a decade to acquire the land that is now Sherman Library & Gardens.  Having done so, the Sherman Foundation shifted its focus from grants to creating to creating a research library and public gardens. Planning began in earnest 50 years ago.  It was not until 1974 that construction of Sherman Library & Gardens was complete

So why did Arnold Haskell name Sherman Library & Gardens after his mentor?  In 1974, Haskell said:

[Sherman] was a heck of a good teacher, too; he taught me everything I know about business …  But one thing the General wanted: he wanted his name to be perpetuated. Now I never cared for that. In 1951, when I founded the Foundation, the attorneys wanted me to call it the Arnold Haskell Foundation, because they felt that, being alive, I could accomplish more with it than if it was named after somebody that nobody knew. But I thought, well, this is the opportunity… to carry on the General's name.


Arnold Haskell and founding Gardens Director Wade Roberts cutting the ribbon at the opening of the South Gate, 1972
Sherman Library